Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Platonist Tradition and the Ordering of Knowledge...

The Platonist Tradition and the Ordering of Knowledge ABSTRACT: I argue that the contemporary crisis in education — that nothing appears valid as a discipline unless it has a utilitarian value — may be challenged from the perspective of the Platonist tradition. The ascent through philosophy to the vision of Beauty in itself in Platos Symposium affirms the perception of beauty or nobility as the ultimate end and value of all knowledge. Marsilio Ficinos adaption of Plato in the Renaissance articulates a more metaphysical ascent which broadens the objects of knowledge in order to include the cosmos and the arts as well as philosophy. Together, these two accounts provide a foundation for understanding the ordering of all knowledge†¦show more content†¦Of course, they are disappointed to discover that philosophy has more questions than answers, and that there is no answer which has not been disputed. Nevertheless, they approach the subject in the same spirit as traditional philosophical inquiry. In this spirit, then, i t is appropriate to seek an answer to the question, What is the value of education? Indeed, this question presupposes an answer to an even more basic one: What is education? It is difficult to articulate responses to these questions. Can liberal education today be really non-utilitarian, as it was for Aristotle, motivated by pure curiosity and a concern for excellence? (3) Such a response has the merit of joining battle directly with the modern mentality, but it presupposes the system of moral and intellectual virtues as defining human excellence. On the other hand, it is impossible to follow the classical tradition and find a moral value in literature and the fine arts without drawing critical distinctions regarding the moral value of particular works. This, however, has long been foreclosed by the Kantian doctrine of the autonomy of aesthetic judgment. (4) In any case, it is unclear what might be the source of moral judgment in the modern world; the classical concept of virtue presupposed both a concept of the soul and a concept of citizenship in a particular locality. (5) All three concepts have largely disappeared in the modernShow MoreRelatedCosmolo gy in Miltons Paradise Lost2810 Words   |  12 Pagesand Arabic sources in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Specifically, the Aristotelian tradition gained center stage in the thirteenth century and gradually substituted its conception of the cosmos for that of Plato and the early Middle Ages. This is not to suggest that Aristotle and Plato disagreed on all the important issues; on many of the basics they were in full accord. Aristotelians, like Platonists, conceived the cosmos to be a great (but unquestionably finite) sphere, with the havens above

Monday, May 18, 2020

Bulimia and Anorexia Essay - 1062 Words

Anorexia is rooted in both nature and nurture. The nature and nurture are sometimes based on the bad genes of the father and the mother. The bad genes produce faulty neurotransmitters and circuits.(â€Å"Case†) The biological underpinnings are only part of anorexia the mechanics is careful not to dismiss the point of the studies to culture and psychological issues of and catalysts for eating disorders. (â€Å"Case†) The studies are put together. This teenage girl in Fijian caused bad eating disorders in just three years. Anne Becker showed us the introduction of a television into the population of Fijian.(â€Å"Case†) The media has contributed to eating disorders in America’s teens. A number of studies show that sexual abuse, trauma, and even bullying†¦show more content†¦This mostly affect the girls because they are always thinking about how they look, it also affects the boys as well. (â€Å"Eller†) The preteens may not exhibit the classic symptoms of a full-blown eating disorder obsessively, by counting fat grams and calories. Always chewing gum or sucking on candy to kill the hunger. Wearing baggy clothes even thought they are not there size they th ink that they should by the clothes bigger. Always making excuses to go to the bathroom after meals. Saying good things about their bodes makes them think that they should keep doing what they are doing or maybe taking it to the next level. (â€Å"Eller†)Shown in some studies that many kids already have weight concerns. In Connecticut College, in New London, asked first-, third-, and fifth-graders questions about their bodies and related behavior. (â€Å"Eller†) Forty percent of the first-graders, 50 percent of the third-graders, and 66 percent of the fifth-graders said theyd been on a diet. They say that they like hoe they look in pictures.91 percent of the first-graders agreed, but only 77 percent of the third-graders and 52 percent of the fifth-graders did.(â€Å"Eller†) When kids get to the age where they think about what members of theShow MoreRelatedAnorexia and Bulimia Essay819 Words   |  4 Pagesbecame more concerned with their weight. Perfection and appearances became everything. When being slim became crucial, women, and even men could do everything to fit in this new trend. This includes becoming victims of eating disorders like Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa. These disorders started in people after their restricted diet. They became obsessed with the idea of perfection and beauty. They are extremely concerned with their weights and body images. These girls—and even some men—want to lookRead More Anorexia and Bulimia Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesadolescent girls develops anorexia nervosa, a dangerous condition in which they can literally starve themselves to death. Another two to three percent develop bulimia nervosa, a destructive pattern of excessive overeating followed by vomiting or other quot; purging quot; behaviors to control their weight. These eating disorders also occur in men and older women, but much less frequently. The consequences of eating disorders can be severe. For example, one in ten anorexia nervosa leads to death fromRead More Anorexia and Bulimia Essay1116 Words   |  5 Pages Anorexia and Bulimia: A Concise Overview nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;As many as 20% of females in their teenage and young adult years suffer from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (Alexander-Mott, 4). Males are also afflicted by these eating disorders, but at a much lower rate, with a female to male ratio of six to one. Those with anorexia nervosa refuse to maintain a normal body weight by not eating and have an intense fear of gaining weight. People with bulimia nervosa go through periodsRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia And Bulimia1676 Words   |  7 Pagesthe leading mental illnesses in America are Anorexia and Bulimia. Both Anorexia and Bulimia are similar in the fact that they are highly popular in today’s world where it seems that physical appearance is always a topic of discussion; however, the two illnesses are different in the effects they have to a person’s body. To begin, Anorexia is the act of starving oneself due to an unhealthy obsession with one’s weight. Many girls who struggle with anorexia have an intense irrational fear of being overweightRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1452 Words   |  6 Pagestwo major types of eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. One of the descriptions of anorexia nervosa was during the 12th and 13th centuries. A woman, Saint Catherine of Siena, ceased her intake of food for a spiritual denial of herself. During the 16th century people who had self-discipline and practiced abstention were suspected to be witches and were burned at the stake. In the 17th century all the way through the 19th century anorexia was perceived to be an endocrine disorderRead MoreEssay on Anorexia and Bulimia1661 Words   |  7 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Bulimia Nervosa [also known as Bulimia] is a very serious and dangerous eating disorder. The disorder can be describe as bingeing and then followed by purging or a person who eats a large amount of food in short periods of time and then vomits after eating to prevent on gaining the weight cause by the food. There is different ways of going about ways to prevent the weight gain, making oneself throw up, taking pills, or laxatives whichRead MoreBulimia Nervos Anorexia Nervosa2594 Words   |  11 PagesBulimia Nervosa Bulimia originated in Greece, from the word boulimia, which is defined as extreme hunger (the Bella Vita, 2013). Bulimia falls into the category of being a purge disorder, a lot of the time people that struggle with bulimia may have times where they battle with anorexia nervosa, meaning they restrict themselves from eating. There have been so many cases where people battle with bulimia for years upon years, despite the large variety of treatment there is. There are many perspectivesRead MoreAnorexia Vs. Bulimia Nervosa1200 Words   |  5 PagesAnorexia vs. Bulimia In our culture today, people concerned with the way they look to a high extent, how much they weight, their physical appearances and how to change a body part they do not like. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that affect a person’s weight to an extreme due to wanting to be thinner when in reality they are already thin to the bone. Both disorders have their similarities and differences from their main obsession of body weight to how they try to loseRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa1122 Words   |  5 PagesAnorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are a few of the most common disorders struggled with today. Anorexia Nervosa is a condition of the intense fear to gain weight, which results in consistent lack of eating. Bulimia Nervosa, involves frequent episodes of binge eating followed by throwing up because of fear of gaining weight. The mortality rate for anorexia is the highest of all mental disorders yet the genetic factors relating them wer e not a huge concern to look into. It is easy to think thatRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia And Bulimia1229 Words   |  5 Pages Statistics and Resources, published September 2002, revised October 2003, What an extremely disturbing fact! With so many people are struggling, why are the differences between anorexia and bulimia so misunderstood by the majority of the population? Anorexia and Bulimia are very severe eating disorders that are described as an unnatural relationship with food. The body of the individual that is diagnosed goes through extreme changes that ultimately cause havoc on the body

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Plato Essay - 1588 Words

Socrates ideal city is described through Plato in his work The Republic, some questions pondered through the text could be; How is this an quot;idealquot; city formed, and is justice in the city relative to that of the human soul? I believe Socrates found the true meaning of justice in the larger atmosphere of the city and applied that concept to the human soul. Socrates describes his idea of an quot;ideal cityquot; as one that has all the necessary parts to function and to show that justice is truly the harmony between the three stages of the city and soul in the human body. Plato introduces the idea of the happiness. Socrates says, quot;†¦in establishing our city, we aren’t aiming to make any one group outstanding happy but to†¦show more content†¦The three virtues are wisdom, courage, and moderation. Wisdom is the whole knowledge, which describes the rulers of the city. The rulers should be the ones who incorporate philosophy and ruling together to rule the city wisely. Courage describes the guardians, whos job was to defend the city from invasion and take new lands for the city. The third virtue of the ideal city was moderation which is the concept of self-control and knowing ones role, also the concept of quot;one man, one jobquot;. The ideal city described in the work is ideal to me because it relates all essential parts to bring harmony among the different kind of people and the virtues that go hand in hand with to bring about justice. Therefore, the question arises, if I would want to live in the ideal city Plato has described in the work. My answer would be yes because it seems that everyone has a specific role to follow depending upon their abilities, both physically and mentally. When I look back to the early cities Plato discussed I agree with the city of need, but that is only part of the whole scheme of things. We need to add the luxurious things and leaders and the people to protect the city. No one of those first two cities could be great by its self, sure each one had their strong points but together they are harmonious to develop the perfect city. The perfect city needs both cities traits, beginning with the basicShow MoreRelatedPlato And Plato s Republic1119 Words   |  5 PagesThe ancient Greek Philosopher Plato had an interest in finding the ideal government. In Plato’s Republic, he discusses his ideas and views of how this ideal government would function. He believed that people are born into 3 different classes, with different responsibilities (Plato 415a). Only people in the â₠¬Å"golden† class were fit to rule. The most effective of these rulers would be philosophers, as they have knowledge of the good of the whole (Plato 473d). This system seems too perfect for me. IRead MorePlato967 Words   |  4 Pageswould wish the best for a friend regardless of the friend’s usefulness to them or what pleasure he could attain. Having been raised to strive to attain these virtues, the need for a reason to do so becomes pointless. Another difference is that Plato believes that the best type of good is one that is desirable both in itself and for the sake of its results, while Aristotle says that if X is desired because it brings you to Y, then Y is ultimately better than X. Therefore, the highest good is oneRead MorePlato And Plato s The Apology1623 Words   |  7 Pagesmore interested in determining how the world worked and its origins/cosmology, as oppose to philosophers such as Plato And Socrates who focused more on ethics or morality. Plato’s conception of God and religion can be depicted in his literatures â€Å"Euthyphro† and â€Å"The Apology† which he expresses through his writings of Socrates in dialogue formation. While one may assume that both Plato and Socrates shared analogous notions of God and religion it is impossible to truly know given the Socratic problemRead MoreThe Republic By Plato Vs. Plato1299 Words   |  6 PagesThe Republic by Plato is an vision of an utopian society established through the character of Socrates. Many aspects of Plato’s society appears utopian; however, it can also be viewed dystopian as it is mere subjectiveness. Many of Plato’s arguments apply to current day society; for example, Donald Trump’s rise to power depicts democracy degenerating to despotism. Plato’s Republic is utopian in idealistic terms because the most qualified individual is in charge of society who is able to extend hisRead MoreComparison Between Plato And Plato1101 Words   |  5 Pagesmorality is, how to create justice inside and outside society, the state of nature, equality, and the state of war. They distinguish how the people and government help create a well-oiled society. Comparing Plato to Rousseau, the beginning of philosophy to a more modern perspective. In Crito by Plato, Socrates continues a speech of the Laws of Athens by appealing to a social contract that exists between the Laws and the citizens. By living in Athens, one must abide by the Laws of Athens. Since SocratesRead MorePlato1819 Words   |  8 Pageswinner of the North Award for the best paper in the 2012 Agora. Ben presented an earlier version of this paper at the ACTC Student Conference at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California, in March, 2011.) When reading the Apology and the Crito of Plato, one inevitably comes upon a seeming fundamental contradiction between the two dialogues. The Apology presents readers with a defiant Socrates who declares in his trial that, if acquitted on the condition that he never philosophize again, he wouldRead MorePlato s Symposium, By Plato1273 Words   |  6 PagesIn the book,† Plato’s Symposium,† by Plato, who was a philosopher in Greece, he illustrates the dialectic discussion at a party at Agathon’s to celebrate his triumph of his first tragedy. In the Symposium; the guests Phaedrus, an Athenian aristocrat; Pausanias, the legal expert; Eryximachus, a physician; Aristophanes, eminent comic playwright; Agathon ,a tragic poet and host of the banquet; Socrates, eminent philosopher and Plato s teacher; and Alcibiades, a prominent Athenian statesman, oratorRead MorePlato Vs. Rhetoric : Plato And Rhetoric2524 Words   |  11 PagesPlato and Rhetoric Plato is one of the greatest philosophers in history. Often his words and sayings resonate to this day. But, considering all what Plato has done, what is most peculiar about him is his condemnation of poets and sophists. Plato is in a constant fight to see that the way of true philosophy replaces these false arts. But even much more interesting is that Plato goes even further, and condemns the use of rhetoric, the art of persuasion, as a whole. He not only does this adamantlyRead MoreEssay on Plato1158 Words   |  5 PagesPlato: The Life of Plato Plato was born around 427 BC, in Athens Greece to rich and politically involved family. Platos parents spared no expense in educating him; he was taught at the finest schools. He was taught by Socrates and defended Socrates when he was on trial. Plato traveled to Italy and may have even visited Egypt before founding The Academy. Plato also visited Sicily and instructed a young king there before returning to The Academy to teach for twenty years before his death in 347Read MorePlato Vs Aristotle Vs Plato1814 Words   |  8 PagesPlato and Aristotle had a considerable amount of differences in ideology given that Aristotle was Plato’s student for roughly two decades. Plato, a student of Socrates, opposed the idea of average citizens to participate in politics because he believed that political practice was skill or â€Å"technÄ“ that can only be achieved by a few people. He believed that â€Å"kings must be those among them who have proved best both in philosophy and where war is concerned.† (Republic, 491) and that these â€Å"philosopher

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Proverbs in Things Fall Apart - 2025 Words

Proverbs are wise sayings that address the heart of the discourse in any given context, truthfully and objectively. In Africa and in Nigerian cultures especially, they are considered the reliable horses, which convey meanings to their destinations or hearts of the listeners. This study investigates aspects of the meaning of proverbs in the work of a Nigerian author, Achebe’s Things Fall Apart. It is contended that meanings of Nigerian proverbs can be worked out within the semantic, referential, ideational, stimulus-response, realist and contextual theories. Types of meaning and proverbs are addressed and situated within the two works. It is advanced that proverbs play significant roles in clarifying, exemplifying, underscoring and†¦show more content†¦Theory: Stimulus-Response Types: Denotative, Affective. Analysis: There is a tact advice almost coinciding with the English proverb, â€Å"one good turn deserves another† here. If a person accords honor or reveren ce to the successful ones, it is likely that he is also going to be successful. In other words, the sense of the proverb is that a person who helps another man helps himself indirectly as he gets familiar with what that man engages in – and this will ultimately lead him also to greatness, directly or indirectly. 5 A toad does not run in the daytime for nothing.15 Theory: Ideational Types: Denotative/Stylistic Analysis: The proverb tasks our mental conception or general knowledge of the toad as a nocturnal animal. If such an animal therefore does â€Å"run† (a lexical item preferred by the author for metaphorical or stylistic effect, against the normal collocative word, â€Å"jump†) in the day, there must be something amiss. The sense of the proverb is that there is a cause for anything strange that happens; there must be a reason, at least â€Å"no smoke without fire†. A toad running in daytime is probably pursuing something or certainly something is purs uing it. It has to do with the â€Å"cause-effect† relationship. An old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned in a proverb.p.15 Theory: Stimulus – Response Types: Denotative/Thematic Analysis: This proverb also exhibits â€Å"causes-effect†Show MoreRelatedThings Fall Apart Proverbs Essay1125 Words   |  5 PagesThings Fall Apart Proverbs Proverbs are phrases use to explain certain solutions. Proverbs can explain specific situations within certain words to get the point across. The function for proverbs is to describe something without having to be forward with what is being said. There were five proverbs from things fall apart that stuck out to me. These proverbs are â€Å"when a man says yes chi also says yes†, what is good in one place is bad in another†, â€Å"If I fall down for you and you fall down forRead MoreAn Exploration of Proverbs in Things Fall Apart by Achebe Essay974 Words   |  4 PagesProverbs A proverb is a brief, memorable saying that expresses a truth or belief (Proverb). â€Å"Proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten (Achebe 7), and they enhance the meaning of all the conversations. â€Å"A proverb is [basically] a short sentence based on long experience† (. In Things Fall Apart, proverbs are mainly used in the development of the important characters. Through proverbs used in character development, Achebe shows the distinct similarities and differences between theRead MoreEssay about Proverbs in Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe519 Words   |  3 PagesIn the novel, â€Å"Things Fall Apart’, by Chinua Achebe, proverbs have an important impact on the storyline. All proverbs have some kind of deeper meaning behind them, and this is part of the Nigerian culture. Proverbs are used by people of all ages and statures to tell others about the importance of something. People in the Igbo Tribe use proverbs everyday as they are an important part of their culture and traditions, and the art of conversation is regarded very highly throughout the clan. The IgboRead MoreCommunicating with Words in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart668 Words   |  3 Pagesway to use them. One common way to use words in African culture is in proverbs. These short sayings employ folk tales and everyday occurrences to offer the wisdom necessary to explain crucial rudimentary morals. Chinua Achebe states in his novel, Things Fall Apart, that â€Å"†¦proverbs are the palm-oil with which words are eaten.† (7). Interpreting this in such a way so that eating words is a metaphor for gaining knowledge, proverbs act as the fuel, or moving force, of African life. Conversation in theRead MoreThings Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe1070 Words   |  5 PagesYet by using English, Achebe faces a problem. How can he present the African heritage and culture in a language that can never describe it adequately? Indeed, one of the primary tasks of Things Fall Apart is to confront this lack of understanding between the Igbo culture and the colonialist culture. In the novel, the Igbo ask how the white man can call Igbo customs bad when he does not even speak the Igbo language. An understanding of Igbo culture can only be possible when the outsider can relateRead MoreThings Fall Apart and Universal Appeal951 Words   |  4 PagesThings Fall Apart-Universal Appeal Confronted with a global conscious filled with hazy, negative conception of the African reality, appalled with such one sided works as Heart of Darkness and Mr. Johnson, Chinua Achebe determined in 1958 to inform the outside world about Ibo cultural traditions1. One can appreciate then, Achebe s inclusion of universal themes and concepts in is novel as a means of bridging the cultural gap with his audience and reiterating that Africans are in the end, humanRead More Things Fall Apart Contradicts Stereotypes and Stereotyping in Heart of Darkness1750 Words   |  7 PagesChinua Achebes Things Fall Apart Contradicts Stereotypes in Conrads Heart of Darkness In An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness, Chinua Achebe criticizes Joseph Conrad for his racist stereotypes towards the continent and people of Africa. He claims that Conrad propagated the dominant image of Africa in the Western imagination rather than portraying the continent in its true form (1793). Africans were portrayed in Conrads novel as savages with no language other than gruntsRead MoreThe â€Å"African-Ness† of Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe1455 Words   |  6 PagesThe â€Å"African-ness† of Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe In Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, the African culture is depicted by following the life of Okonkwo, a rather customary and conventional African villager. Achebe wanted to write a novel that portrays accurately the African society in the mid to late 1800s in Nigeria, at the time the novel is set. As a child, Achebe spoke the Ibo language, but he was raised in a Christian home. Achebe used the knowledge he gained from the African life to putRead MoreAchebe1599 Words   |  7 Pages Achebe’s Defense of The Ibo People in Things Fall Apart Option 1 The late Chinua Achebe is considered to be one of the most important voices in African literature. Born in colonial Nigeria in the 1930’s, Achebe joined the first wave of African writers who were determined to represent their country in a way that would truthfully depict the past and present. Before the arrival of the first wave writers, the history of pre-colonial Africa was portrayed as a place of barbarous activity. EuropeanRead MoreThings Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe Essay1017 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Tragedy arouses not only pity but also fear†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Things Fall Apart doesn’t tell you what â€Å"has† happened it shows you what is going to happen. In Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe is dramatizing what may happen and what was happening. The District commissioner suggested a book title at the end of the book. I think the book title’s main purpose was to suggest what may happen.†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦The Pacification of the Lower Niger Tribes.† A tragedy has a protagonist, the protagonist is someone who is renowned or prosperous

Hunger Games Comparison Free Essays

Hunger Games vs. Our society A. intro 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Hunger Games Comparison or any similar topic only for you Order Now Alter bodies for fashion/looks 2. 13 colonies theory 3. Average American/ Average Capitolean B. Body Altering 1. Body coloration a. tatooes b. tanning beds c. piercings/colored hair 2. Conclusion C. 13 Colonies Theory 1. 13 states/districts a. try to prevent a â€Å"war† b. King George III /President Snow taking over cruely c. Lower class/ Upper class 2. Upper Class = large and moder city = Capitol 3. â€Å"While there is no such thing as an ordinaryy American, it is not the case that most Americans are balkanized in enclaves where they know little of what life is like for most other Americans. The American Mainstream’ may be hard to specify in detail, but it exists† -Charles Murray D. Average American/ Those in the Capitol 1. We all have an idea of what the average american looks like, But the most common answer was: obese, piercing, tatooes, dyed hair. How does this compare to the Hunger Games? Well in the â€Å"Hunger Games†, the Capitol people had col ored hair and skin, glitter, unusual hair, and did many other unusual things to themselves to portray themselves as beautiful and the new â€Å"it† thing. If you looked at our society, you would see how just about everyone is trying to be the average American and follow all the new trends. Susanna Collins took this theory and made it her own creating a society that portays exactly how ours is. E. Conclusion 1. Body Alteration 2. 13 colonies theory 3. Average Hunger Games vs. Our Society â€Å"Hunger Games† by Susanna Collins, has many similarities to our modern day society. The people living in the â€Å"Hunger Games† Capitol do many things to their body that our society does to theirs. The thirteen districts in â€Å"Hunger Games† had many parallelisms to our thirteen original colonies. The average person living in the capitol has many similarities to our societies average person. â€Å"Hunger Games† society has many of the cultural influences that we have in our modern day society. In â€Å"Hunger Games†, Susanna Collins has many unusual cultural expectancies just as our modern day society does. Many citizens of our modern day society use tatooes, unusual colorings of the hair, piercings, and skin coloring (tanning beds) as a way to express themselves and their beauty. The citizens of the Capitol has these same things. They do very unusual things to their skin, face, and hair. Susanna Collins uses our societys unusual behaviors and adapted them to fit the role of the Capitol. The thirteen districts in â€Å"Hunger Games† have a lot to compare to our nations original thirteen colonies. In our original thirteen colonies, they were trying to avoid war within their new nation while those in the thirteen districts were also trying to avoid a â€Å"war†. The Capitol is ran by a horrible and power abusing President Snow. When our thirteen colonies were still new and trying to become a new nation, King George III of Great Britain was still trying to abuse his power over them. Both of these leaders were ruthless when trying to â€Å"rule† over their people. The thirteen districts and colonies also have the similarity of a upper class and a lower class. Before our thirteen colonies became a nation, they were considered lower class while King George III and his subjects were upper class. The most common definition of upper class is a large and modern city/ place. This definition fits exactly to the Capitol described in â€Å"Hunger Games†. Our original thirteen colonies and â€Å"Hunger Games† Capitol have many similarities and similar ideas. We all have an idea of what the average american looks like, But our most common answer is: obese, piercing, tatooes, dyed hair. How does this compare to the Hunger Games? Well in the â€Å"Hunger Games†, the Capitol people had colored hair and skin, glitter, unusual hair, and did many other unusual things to themselves to portray themselves as beautiful and the new â€Å"it† thing. If you took a look at our society, you would see how just about everyone is trying to be the average American and follow all the new trends. Susanna Collins took this theory and made it her own creating a society that portays exactly how ours is. â€Å"While there is no such thing as an ordinary American, it is not the case that most Americans are balkanized in enclaves where they know little of what life is like for most other Americans. ‘The American Mainstream’ may be hard to specify in detail, but it exists† -Charles Murray. Susanne Collins took many ideas of history and our society to write her book â€Å"Hunger Games†. She took the idea of how our modern society alter their bodies to fit the image that our media creates for us. She also took the history of the original thirteen colonies or states and adapted it to fit the role of the districts in â€Å"Hunger Games†. In addition to those, she took how the idea of the â€Å"average American† and changed it and made it the characteristics of the people living in the capitol. Susanne Collins, author of the novel â€Å"Hunger Games† took many of our modern day ideas and our country’s history and fit it to make â€Å"Hunger Games† the ultimate comparison to our modern day society. How to cite Hunger Games Comparison, Essay examples

Marketing Plan For Oxfam Shop

Question: Discuss about the Marketing Plan For Oxfam Shop. Answer: Product Brief Product Description Hand Carved Marble Vase Haat Black Hand carved marble vase has been intricately carved by the Indian workers to create an elegant and classy floral marble vase. Natural stone has been used for carving the figure and then painted with floral pattern. The artisans of India have created the picture using the original works of India called as art of jali. Jali is a traditional art of India which consists of open carving and painting work and was one of the renowned arts during the medieval period of India. After the painting work is complete the stone are kept in direct sunlight and moonlight. The marble soaks the energy of sun and moon to recharge itself. This makes the work more durable. The vase has been designed for the purpose of home dcor and a show piece item. It can also be used as a flower pot in the home. Why this Product In spite of being one of the growing economies of the world, India is going through employment crisis. India has 56 percent labor-force to population ratio which is very low when compared to the 64 percent which is the ratio for the entire world. India is counted among the countries with the lowest female labor force participation rate. Most of the workers are self employed in the country and lack resources and support. Approximately eighteen percent of the workforce is casual labor, consistently looking for job opportunities on daily basis to support their households (Sharma, 2014). India is a country with rich heritage and culture which has been preserved within the small villages and towns of India. The skilled workers are engaged into artefact work of brass, handicrafts, marble, wood, pottery and other traditional works. India is known for its handicraft work which is distributed all across the world (Business Standard, 2016). The product would provide support to the unemployed population of India by giving them an opportunity of engaging in permanent work. The people no longer would have to look for daily basis job and would get an opportunity to showcase their skills and creativity outside India. The product would work towards the welfare of the poor people by creating permanent job opportunities to create better social lives. This would help Oxfam to achieve its goals and objective to create long lasting solutions and eradicate poverty. Further, the product would attract the target audience in Australia because of its antique and unique features. Product Key Features Hand carved marble vase is an antique product carved by Indian artisans. Its floral pattern is a reflection of rich Indian culture and tradition. Jali art has been used to create the floral pattern on the vase to give an elegant look. Its print and design reminds of the rich Indian culture and tradition which gets back to the medieval period. It is a symbol that represents the intricacy of art work that existed during the Mughal Empire in India. Marble vase has preserved the culture of India through its intricate design and hand carving work. Vase can be used as a home dcor item and a flower pot. Further, a booklet would also be provided to give an overview of history of Indian culture and tradition so that the customer understands the value of the antique piece. Objective Smart Rule SMART is a marketing methodology to create a layout for a campaign with specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timed objectives (Reece, Tasner, Davila, Epstein, Shelton, Light and Kiddon, 2013). SMART Goal: To launch hand carved marble vase and increase the sales of vase by 20 percent in the next financial year of Oxfam Shop. The above goal is specific with the figure of 20 percent, can be measured by next financial year, realistic and achievable within a years time period. One year plan Marketing plan would help to develop a target market, unique selling proposition, pricing and positioning strategy and a distribution plan. Target Market The product is designed for middle class consumers which comprises of 66 percent of the Australian population (Powell, 2016). Females, Boomers in transition and professional youngsters would be the target market for the product. Middle Aged Females: The ladies who are between the ages 35-50 would be the primary target market for the product (Mplans, 2016). They are settled with their families and contribute to the decoration and designing of the home. These ladies are socially active and prefer to shop with their groups. They would contribute to the major sales revenues. Boomers in Transition: This market segments ranges between the ages 50 to 65. These are the people who are changing their houses which could be due to retirement or going through some other transition in their lives. The females are again the decision makers for the household and decoration. Professional youngsters: They are the couples between the ages 25 to 35 preparing for their houses. They look forward to decorate their home to start their new lives (Mplans, 2016). The plan is to target the mass market share to drive huge sales of the product and achieve economies of scale to provide a fair price to the Indian workers. Unique Selling Proposition The products unique selling proposition is that it is hand carved by the artisans and preserves the traditional values of India. The hand carved marble vase is an antique piece which is not available at any outlet in Australia. Pricing and Positioning Strategy Pricing strategy play a great role in generating sales revenue for a product. Pricing helps to position the product in the minds of the people (Lavinsky, 2013). Consumers perceive the value of the product from the price of product. Economy pricing strategy would be used to target the middle class consumer. Since the cost price of the product would be low, therefore, economy pricing strategy would be suitable to drive huge sales. A right pricing strategy would help to position the product in the minds of consumers. Economical pricing strategy would to target the mass market to increase the sales of the product. Distribution Plan The product would be available online on the Oxfam Shop and at the stores of Oxfam in Australia. Environmental Analysis Industry The market industry has been forecasted to grow by 4.2 percent during the tenure 2015 to 2020 (Pre Newswire, 2016). The reason for growth has been justified by the growing market of real estate industry. The people have become conscious regarding the usage of products and are more inclined towards eco-friendly products to reduce the environmental impact. The changing lifestyle and the rising income of consumers have been forecasted as the reason for future growth. Competitors Oxfam faces major competition from the online retailers such as Amazon, eBay, Hive and other online portals (E Marketer, 2015). Further, the international retail chains are also a competition for Oxfam Shop because they provide the goods at the lowest prices and operate on very low margins. Customer Profile The customers of Oxfam Shop are those who look forward for products at an economical price. They are very price sensitive and generally belong to low income segment. They look for the most economical products and are attracted by the discounts and promotional offers (Oxfam Australia, 2014). Current Strategies Oxfam organization thrives towards reducing the poverty of the world by providing them job opportunities to the workers of developing countries. Oxfam conducts programs and events to influence the minds of the people. Oxfam influences the public through humanitarian appeals for which it receives great response (Oxfam Australia, 2014). Opportunities and Strengths Oxfam has defined its vision and goals very clearly due to which consumers is inclined towards the brand (Oxfam Australia, 2014). It has established a strong network across the globe by creating strong relationship with the suppliers. It provides all the day to day needs of the people through its stores and online web portal. Oxfam has a huge scope to expand its network across the globe through advertising, creating suppliers and opening the stores. Strategy Formulation Customers Segmentation Segmentation is the process of grouping individuals who have similar attributes and characteristics. It helps to understand the needs and requirements of the market and then catering a different product for each market segment as per their requirements. Every customer has a different need based on his income, interest, age and needs. Therefore, a single product or service would not attract every customer. The customers are divided on the basis of demography of country, geographic location of customer, behavior and psychographic. Segmenting the customers based on these four variables helps a company to understand its target customer and then design a product accordingly (Kotler, 2012). Now the product could have various segments based on these four variables. Australian population would have same geographic location. Customers behavior and psychographic varies from low income level to high income level and age group of the consumers. Targeting Retail industry has grown to be very wide and people have different tastes for products which are influenced by their income, interest and group. The countrys population has increased by 1.4 percent in the year 2016 and has around 66 percent of the population as middle class (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016). Middle class population looks for economical product in the market for their home dcor. Now in order to achieve huge sales of the product, middle class segment is selected who are price sensitive. This segment looks forward to receive value for their money and do not wish to invest huge amount of money on their lifestyle. Within a middle class segment, there are people with different ages, behavior, psychology and location. Here, the geographical location is Australia, therefore, geographical segmentation is not required. Further, customers behavior and psychology is influenced by their age group because the people around always have an impact on the opinions of the customer, for instance, people maintain their standards of living according to their colleagues and friends. Therefore, middle class segment can be further categorized into three sub-categories based on the age group of people. Middle aged females, boomers in transition and professional youngsters are the three categories for further division. The targets segment is further categorized as primary and secondary target market. Middle Aged Females: The ladies who are between the ages 35-50 would be the primary target market for the product (Mplans, 2016). Primary target market drives the major sales for the product. Boomers in Transition: This market segments ranges between the ages 50 to 65. These are the people who are changing their houses which could be due to retirement or going through some other transition in their lives. This is the secondary target market and contributes towards extra income of the product. Professional youngsters: They are the couples between the ages 25 to 35 preparing for their houses (Mplans, 2016). This is again the secondary target market. The plan is to target the mass market share to drive huge sales of the product and achieve economies of scale to provide a fair price to the Indian workers. Positioning Positioning is influencing the minds of the consumers by creating an image of the product in their minds as compared to its competitors (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014). Product can be positioned through its price, application, quality which would be its unique selling proposition. Unique selling proposition of the product is that it represents the art work of the medieval period in India. It is hand carved by the Indian artisans, which would connect the customer with the India values and tradition. Marketing Mix Product A right product is required to satisfy the needs and requirements of the consumers (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014). Hand carved marble vase is a unique product which can be used by every Australian for the household purpose. Promotion Product promotion would be carried out through out stores display on occasions and festivals when customers are looking forward to buy something for their home dcor. Apart from that, initial discount offers could also be introduced such as combo offer wherein customer would save money by purchasing 2 or more products together. Social network website such as Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus and others provide a great platform for promoting products through direct customer reach. Price Price is an important component to drive sales for a product. Price builds a perception of the brand and product in the minds of consumer (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014). The price of the product would economical to increase the sales revenue and achieve economies of scale. Place The product would be made available at the nearby stores of Oxfam Shop and a consumer can also purchase the product online from the Oxfam website. Conclusion The report has successfully created a marketing plan for the Oxfam Shop. Hand carved marble vase has been introduced as a new product in the Australian market. The products unique selling proposition is that it represents the art work of medieval period of India and has been created by the artisans who have been suffering through poverty. Economical pricing strategy has been used to target mass market share and achieve economies of scale. Promotions would be carried out through out store marketing and social media network. Further, the report has analyzed the market industry trend to grow by 4.2 percent during 2015 to 2020. References Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2016. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Available at: [Accessed Online 25 Jan 2017]. Business Standard. (2016). Minority communities' artisans to showcase talent at IITF. Business Standard. Available at: [Accessed Online 24 Jan 2017]. Dudovskiy, J. (2016). Amazon SWOT Analysis. Research Methodology. Available at: [Accessed Online]. E Marketer. (2015). Australian Retail Ecommerce Sales to Top $10 Billion in 2015. E Marketer. Available at: [Accessed Online 25 Jan 2017]. Kotler, P. (2012). Marketing Management. London: Pearson Education. Kotler, P., and Arstrong, G. (2014). Principles of Marketing. US: Pearson. Lavinsky, D. (2013). Marketing Plan Template: Exactly What To Include. Forbes. Available at: [Accessed Online 24 Jan 2017]. Mplans. (2016). Home Decorating Retail Marketing Plan. Mplans. Available at: [Accessed Online 24 Jan 2017]. Oxfam Australia. (2014). The Power of People Against Poverty. Oxfam Australia Strategic Plan. Available at: [Accessed Online 25 Jan 2017]. Powell, R. (2015). Australia's middle class no longer the world's wealthiest. The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: PR Newswire. (2016). World Home Decor Market - Expected to Garner $664.0 Billion, by 2020. PR Newswire. Available at: [Accessed Online 25 Jan 2017]. Reece, M.,Tasner, M., Davila, T., Epstein, M., Shelton, R., Light, L., and Kiddon, J. (2013). How to Innovate in Marketing. New Jersey: FT Press. Sharma, A.N. (2014). India Labour and Employment Report 2014: Workers in the era of Globalization. Institute of Human Development. Available at: [Accessed Online 24 Jan 2017].

Friday, May 1, 2020

Computation Of Capital Gain Loss Regarding â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Computation Of Capital Gain Loss Regarding? Answer: Introducation In the given case, a method of capital gain tax, indexation and scheme will not be considered due to the assets holding period, less than a year. Therefore, one other method is presented here to be applied; under this method, selecting of full capital will be done in order to calculate CGT payable amount for the assets were acquired, in less than 1 year (Auerbach and Hassett, 2015). After then measure the cost base for assets each part, that is (shares costs + brokerage). Then, compute the measurable capital gains that are received consideration (sales profit-brokerage) (Yagan, 2015). Next, compensate any loss occurred from the capital. Further, make the addition of capital gains to left assessable income to identify the total tax liability. Applicability of provisions In accordance with the provided case scenario, it can be said that assets are held for less than 12 months; thus method of indexation or discount will not be applicable for computation. By considering this aspect computation of net capital gain or loss will be as follows: Particulars Calculations Amount Capital gain Antique vase $3 000.00-$2 000.00 $1 000.00 Shares $2 0000.00-$5 000.00 $15 000.00 $16 000.00 (A) Capital loss Painting $1 000.00-$9 000.00 -$8 000.00 Antique chair $1 000.00-$3 000.00 -$2 000.00 Sound system $11 000.00-$12 000.00 -$1 000.00 -$11 000.00 (B) Net capital gain A-B $5 000.00 Brian is a bank executive, and he received a loan of $1m at a special interest rate, i.e. 1% as part of his remuneration package. Brian had utilised 40% loan for production of income and satisfied all the obligation regarding interest payments. However, this benefit is taxable under provisions of fringe benefits tax (FBT). This part of the study deals with the taxability of benefit provided to Brian through providing a loan at a special interest rate. Regulatory provisions Fringe benefits tax is applicable in the tax system of Australia, approved the Australian Taxation Office. This tax is charged, mostly on benefits of non-cash that an employer offers in relation to employment (Faccio, and Xu 2015). This tax is imposed only on the employer not on the employee, and will be imposed in spite of; the benefit is offered to the employee directly or to the employees associate (Evans, 2015). The standard rate of interest is used to compute the tax value of the following; fringe benefit offered in terms of the loan, a fringe benefit of a car, in which employee decides to value benefit by the method of operating cost. For 2017 rate of statutory interest with reference to TD 2016/5 for FBT year1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017 is 5.65% (Woellner and, 2016). Applicability of provisions By considering the above-described regulation of FBT, it can be said that Brian is liable to pay tax at different amount of interest. Computation of the taxable value of the fringe benefit for Brian for the 2016/17 FBT year is as follows: Particulars Amount Interest to be paid by applying special interest rate $1 000 000*1% $10 000.00 Interest to be paid by applying statutory rate $1 000 000*5.65% $56 500.00 Taxable value $56 500.00-$56 500.00 $46 500.00 In both, the cases taxable value will be same as the overall value of the benefit is considered, and there are no specific provisions regarding monthly or annual payment for a fringe benefit. In this case, situation rental property is purchased by Jack and Jill (his wife) as joint tenants. For this, they formed agreement according to which profit will be distributed in the ratio of 1:9 to Jack and Jill respectively and if there is loss than Jack will be entitled to 100% of the loss. Thus, the issue is regarding tax implication of revenue and capital loss. Regulatory provisions TR 93/32 taxation of rental property - division of net income or loss between co-owners From the common perception, it is reliable to distinguish the rental property owner into Beaumont J in McDonald's case at ATR p.96 joint owners in investments rather than instead of partners in operational activities of the business (Barrett and Veal, 2016). Thus, rental property co owners usually are not partners in terms of general law, and with the consequence that they are not regarded to the applicable general law of partnership inclusive of profit and loss distribution of property or assets (TR 93/32 taxation of rental property - division of net income or loss between co-owners, 1993). Personally, there is no survival of any partnership according to the general law, if the partners are respondent and their spouse. Their relation can be referred as co-ownership, even if they can be considered under the Act of subsection 6(1). Certain circumstances are of no consequence for our point. It sounds interesting; their academic partnership will take it out with results and will be considered as a partnership for certain reasons. It will not allow the respondent to make a deduction of the total loss in partnership (Pearce and Pinto, 2015). Although, respondent can only make a deduction in own interest the loss of partnership. Respondents own interest is that interest, on which a partner is entirely entitled. In contrast to his mutual interest in the total, FCT v Whiting (1943)[1]. Thus, It is vital to identify that both respondent and Mrs McDonald were only notional partners for the Acts purpose or were true partners as per the general law. Applicability of provisions and Conclusion By considering the above case provisions, jack is not entitled to the entire loss and he will compensate loss only portion of profit, i.e. 10%, and same will be applicable in a situation where this property is sold irrespective of the fact that there is capital gain or loss. In the case of IRC v. Duke of Westminster, he carried out a deed with his helpers who were its gardener or servants. In that agreement, Duke made a guaranteed to pay out some amount of money to his fellows for their provided services (QC, 2016). Further, the agreement was done in written and was submitted to his fellows, declaring that Duke will make payments with extra payment, if there would be any, for the payment made in exchange for their service provided. Duke attempted to claim these types of payments for a tax deduction for the agreement of tax evasion. Regulatory provisions and Applicability of provisions In the above-described case, the main problem lies with the deed that shall it be treated or observed as the employment agreement. Initially, Duke was not paying his fellows on a weekly basis nor on a monthly basis as the contract would mean to (Westminster doctrine, 2016). Thus it can be said that there was the least concern over the contract, which the most significant term the formulation n of legally obligatory contract. Under the deed of covenant, it payment can only be tax deductible if there is a yearly payment made to the helpers (Bankman and, 2017). Duke would only entitle to make a claim for tax relief for the yearly payment or the payment made in exchange for services rendered in that particular period. Conclusion Relevancy of this case in the present scenario In this cited case, there was a suggestion that tax evasion will only be entitled if it practises that established statute law, in this case, the general rule of the deed of covalent format can decrease the tax liability of if it is accepted and the claim can only be made on a yearly basis. In March 2011, a document was issued by the revenue as Tackling Tax Avoidance, which showed how they would effort to solve the problems of tax evasion in upcoming future (Sharma, 2015). The document declared that they aim to make development in the rules of Tax Avoidance Disclosure, as per these some schemes of tax must be informed the taxation authorities, soon after the implementation (Bloom, 2015). The major aim is to help users for making out differences among terms related to artificial avoidance schemes and ordinary sensible tax planning. Regulatory provisions Taxation Ruling 95/6: Disposal of standing timber, not in the ordinary course of business Trees for disposal has been owned by a taxpayer, that has planted but not essentially by the taxpayer and intended for the sale might affect the actual value of trees contained in the assessable income of taxpayer as per the subsection 36(1), when the disposal would take place (Frecknall-Hughes and Kirchler, 2015). The tax will be payable irrespective of aspect that business is carried out of the forest operations, as long as the business is carried out by the taxpayer and the disposal is not done in the regular course of business (Burkhauser, Hahn and Wilkins, 2015). The major requirement is that the trees represent the business assets as a whole. If or if not the specific contract leads to trees disposal, as per distinct, from the sale of Land's interest, will mostly depend on the analyzing of the contract (Taxation Ruling: TR 95/6PW - Notice of Partial Withdrawal, 2010). The Subsection 36(1) will not be applicable, in case the trees are land leased and there is no entire ownership of the lessee on the leased land for this aspect case of Rose v. FC[2] can be considered (Bond and Wright, 2017). Disposal of rights to standing timber A taxpayer has been carrying a business of forest operations can put standing timber into a sale by providing the right to some individual to cut out the timber, if or if not there is right to cut the timber is practised (Taxation Ruling: TR 95/6PW - Notice of Partial Withdrawal, 2010). The income has been generated from the sale can be assessable, as per the subsection 25(1) (McNeil, 2015). Applicability of provisions and Conclusion In accordance with the regulatory provisions covered under Taxation Ruling 95/6, sales of timber is taxable in both the cases however provisions will differ. If Brian is engaged in Disposal of standing timber not in the ordinary course of business than taxability will be as per subsection 36(1) and if direct rights of procurement of timber are sold than taxability will be as per provisions of subsection 25(1) References Auerbach, A.J. and Hassett, K., 2015. Capital taxation in the twenty-first century.The Economic Review,105(5), pp.38-42. Yagan, D., 2015. Capital tax reform and the real economy: The effects of the 2003 dividend tax cut.The American Economic Review,105(12), pp.3531-3563. Faccio, M. and Xu, J., 2015. Taxes and capital structure.Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,50(3), pp.277-300. Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D., 2016. Australian Taxation Law 2016.OUP Catalogue. Barrett, J.M. and Veal, J.A., 2016. Tax Rationality, Politics, and Media Spin: A Case Study of the Failed Car Park TaxProposal. Pearce, P. and Pinto, D., 2015. An evaluation of the case for a congestion tax in Australia.The Tax Specialist,18(4), pp.146-153. Bankman, J., Shaviro, D.N., Stark, K.J. and Kleinbard, E.D., 2017.Federal Income Taxation. Wolters Kluwer Law Business. Bloom, D., 2015. Tax avoidance-a view from the dark side.Melb. UL Rev.,39, p.950. QC, J.M., 2016. Ethics and tax compliance: the morality of tax avoidance. The good old days.Trusts Trustees,22(1), p.166. Frecknall-Hughes, J. and Kirchler, E., 2015. Towards a general theory of tax practice.Social Legal Studies,24(2), pp.289-312. Evans, S., 2015. It's' Clean Hands' Again: The Dirtiness of Not Paying Tax Considered in the Supreme Court. Sharma, S.K., 2015. 020_Law of Sales Tax. McNeil, K., 2015. Indigenous Territorial Rights in the Common Law. Bond, D. and Wright, A., 2017. A Snapshot of the Australian Taxpayer. Burkhauser, R.V., Hahn, M.H. and Wilkins, R., 2015. Measuring top incomes using tax record data: A cautionary tale from Australia.The Journal of Economic Inequality,13(2), pp.181-205. TR 93/32 taxation of rental property - division of net income or loss between co-owners. 1993. [Online]. Available through [Accessed on 13th September 2017]. Westminster doctrine. 2016. [Online]. Available through [Accessed on 13th September 2017]. Taxation Ruling: TR 95/6PW - Notice of Partial Withdrawal. 2010. [Online]. Available through [Accessed on 13th September 2017]. [2] T (1951) 84 CLR 118; 9 ATD 334.